In Magento 1, the core_resource table listed all of the installed modules and their versions.

Well that table is gone in Magento 2, because their data architecture was completely re-architected

Where did the “core_resource” table go to in Magento 2

The same table exists in M2, but has a different name.

setup_module

It has the exact same purpose and almost identical schema.

If you need to delete a module’s install, or reset the module version to re-run an install script, do it in the “setup_module” table.